Your eyes are one of the most remarkable organs that allow you to perceive the world around you. Without it, you feel helpless and deprived of what the world offers. However, many people take their vision for granted until something goes wrong. Glaucoma is one such eye disorder that can affect your vision slowly and without any symptoms until much later.
In this guide, we will explain what glaucoma is, its forms, symptoms, causes, and treatment choices, and whether you want to improve your eyesight in an eye hospital in Hyderabad. This blog will provide the information you need to keep educated and hope to help you make decisions about your eye care journey.
What is Glaucoma?
Consider your eye as a small glass globe filled with fluid. The pressure inside must be just correct for it to perform effectively. Glaucoma is a category of eye-blindness disorder in which the pressure inside the eye grows too high, causing damage to the optic nerve, the nerve that connects the eye to your brain. If left untreated, this disorder can cause vision loss, beginning with peripheral vision and later impacting the entirety.
Types of Glaucoma
There are various forms of Glaucoma, but the two most common are Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Angle-Closure Glaucoma.
- Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is the most common kind of glaucoma. It appears gradually and is often painless. This type develops when the drainage channel in eye nerves gets clogged over time, resulting in a progressive increase in intraocular pressure.
- Angle-Closure Glaucoma: Unlike POAG, angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by a rapid increase in intraocular pressure. It happens when the iris (the colored component of the eye) gets too close to the drainage angle, obstructing the passage of fluid out of the eye. This could be a medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention.
Symptoms of Glaucoma
Glaucoma is known as the “silent thief of sight” because it can progress steadily without warning until considerable vision.
- No symptoms in the early stages
- Progressive loss of peripheral vision.
- In later stages, difficulty seeing things in your central vision.
- Acute angle closure glaucoma
- Halos or colored rings around lights
- Red eye
- Severe eye pain and headaches
What Is the Cause of Glaucoma?
While the exact cause of glaucoma is not always known, various risk factors increase your chances of developing it:
- The pressure within the eye has risen.
- Age: Glaucoma is more prevalent in older people.
- Glaucoma in the family history.
- Diabetes and hypertension.
- Steroid use for over an extended period.
Regular eye tests are essential for glaucoma diagnosis since early detection can help avoid vision loss. Your eye doctor will measure your intraocular pressure, analyze the health of your eye nerves, and perform visual field tests to check for any vision loss during an eye exam.
Treatment of Glaucoma
Glaucoma treatment aims to reduce intraocular pressure and protect the optic nerve from further damage. Among the treatment options are:
- Oral drugs: Oral drugs may be administered when eye drops alone prove ineffective in reducing intraocular pressure.
- Prescription eye drops often lower intraocular pressure by either decreasing fluid production or enhancing outflow.
- Laser therapy can help lower intraocular pressure by improving fluid outflow from the eye or reducing fluid production.
- Surgery may be necessary in severe cases or when other therapies are ineffective, such as trabeculectomy or shunt implants.
How to Prevent Glaucoma
While you cannot always avoid Glaucoma, you can lower your chances of developing it or slowing down its progression by following these steps:
- Regular eye tests are recommended, especially if you have risk factors.
- Managing underlying health issues such as diabetes and hypertension.
- In situations when eye injuries are conceivable, use protective eyewear.
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through a well-balanced diet and regular exercise.
In summary, Glaucoma is a potential eye-blindness disorder that can affect anyone, but early detection and effective treatment can often help avoid or reduce vision loss. Regular eye exams at an eye hospital as well as becoming aware of the risk factors, are critical for preserving healthy eyes.